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    Common Types and Aspects


    CDS ships with a prebuilt model @sap/cds/common that provides common types and aspects.


    Why Use @sap/cds/common?

    It’s recommended that all applications use the common types and aspects provided through @sap/cds/common to benefit from these features:

    • Concise and comprehensible models → see also Conceptual Modeling
    • Foster interoperability between all applications
    • Proven best practices captured from real applications
    • Streamlined data models with minimal entry barriers
    • Optimized implementations and runtime performance
    • Automatic support for localized code lists and value helps
    • Extensibility using Aspects
    • Verticalization through third-party extension packages

    For example, usage is as simple as indicated in the following sample:

    using { Country } from '@sap/cds/common';
    entity Addresses {
      street  : String;
      town    : String;
      country : Country; //> using reuse type

    Outcome = Optimized Best Practice

    The final outcomes in terms of modeling patterns, persistence structures, and implementations is essentially the same as with native means, if you would have collected design experiences from prior solutions, such as we did.

    All the common reuse features of @sap/cds/common are provided only through this ~100 line .cds model. Additional runtime support isn’t required. @sap/cds/common merely uses basic CDS modeling features as well as generic features like localized data and temporal data (which only need minimal runtime support with minimal overhead).

    In effect, the results are straightforward, capturing best practices we learned from real business applications, with minimal footprint, optimized performance, and maximized adaptability and extensibility.

    Common Reuse Aspects

    @sap/cds/common defines the following aspects for use in your entity definitions. They give you shortcuts, for concise and comprehensible models, interoperability and out-of-the-box runtime features connected to them.

    Aspect cuid

    Use cuid as a convenient shortcut, to add canonical, universally unique primary keys to your entity definitions. These examples are equivalent:

    entity Foo : cuid {...}
    entity Foo {
      key ID : UUID;

    The service provider runtimes automatically fill in UUID-typed keys like these with auto-generated UUIDs.

    Learn more about canonical keys and UUIDs.

    Aspect managed

    Use managed, to add four elements to capture created by/at and latest modified by/at management information for records. The following examples are equivalent-

    entity Foo : managed {...}
    entity Foo {
      createdAt  : Timestamp @cds.on.insert : $now;
      createdBy  : User      @cds.on.insert : $user;
      modifiedAt : Timestamp @cds.on.insert : $now  @cds.on.update : $now;
      modifiedBy : User      @cds.on.insert : $user @cds.on.update : $user;

    modifiedAt and modifiedBy are set whenever the respective row was modified, that means, also during CREATE operations.

    The annotations @cds.on.insert/update are handled in generic service providers so to fill in those fields automatically.

    Learn more about generic service features.

    Aspect temporal

    This aspect basically adds two canonical elements, validFrom and validTo to an entity. It also adds a tag annotation that connects the CDS compiler’s and runtime’s built-in support for Temporal Data. This built-in support covers handling date-effective records and time slices, including time travel. All you’ve to do is, add the temporal aspect to respective entities as follows:

    entity Contract : temporal {...}

    Learn more about temporal data.

    Aspect sap.common.TextsAspect

    This aspect is used when generating .texts entities for the unfolding of localized elements. It can be extended, which effectively extends all generated .texts entities.

    aspect sap.common.TextsAspect {
      key locale: sap.common.Locale;

    Learn more about Extending .texts entities.

    Common Reuse Types

    @sap/cds/common provides predefined easy-to-use types for Countries, Currencies, and Languages. Use these types in all applications to foster interoperability.

    Type Country

    The reuse type Country is defined in @sap/cds/common as a simple managed Association to the code list for countries as follows:

    type Country : Association to sap.common.Countries;

    Here’s an example of how you would use that reuse type:


    using { Country } from '@sap/cds/common';
    entity Addresses {
      street  : String;
      town    : String;
      country : Country; //> using reuse type

    The code lists define a key element code, which results in a foreign key column country_code in your SQL table for Addresses. For example:


    CREATE TABLE Addresses (
      street NVARCHAR(5000),
      town NVARCHAR(5000),
      country_code NVARCHAR(3) -- foreign key

    Learn more about managed associations.

    Type Currency

    type Currency : Association to sap.common.Currencies;

    It’s the same as for Country.

    Type Language

    type Language : Association to sap.common.Languages;

    It’s the same as for Country.

    Type sap.common.Locale

    type sap.common.Locale : String(14) @title : '{i18n>LanguageCode}';

    The reuse type sap.common.Locale is used when generating .texts entities for the unfolding of localized elements.

    Learn more about localized data.

    Common Code Lists

    As seen in the previous section, the reuse types Country, Currency, and Language are defined as associations to respective code list entities. They act as code list tables for respective elements in your domain model.

    You rarely have to refer to the code lists in consuming models, but always only do so transitively by using the corresponding reuse types as shown previously.

    Aspect sap.common.CodeList

    This is the base definition for the three code list entities in @sap/cds/common. It can also be used for your own code lists.

    aspect sap.common.CodeList {
      name  : localized String(111);
      descr : localized String(1111);

    Learn more about localized keyword.

    Entity sap.common.Countries

    The code list entity for countries is meant to be used with ISO 3166-1 two-letter alpha codes as primary keys. For example, 'GB' for the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, it’s defined as String(3) to allow you to fill in three-letter codes, if needed.

    entity sap.common.Countries : CodeList {
      key code : String(3); //> ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes (or alpha-3)

    Entity sap.common.Currencies

    The code list entity for currencies is meant to be used with ISO 4217 three-letter alpha codes as primary keys, for example, 'USD' for US Dollar. In addition, it provides an element to hold common currency symbols.

    entity sap.common.Currencies : CodeList {
      key code : String(3); //> ISO 4217 alpha-3 codes
      symbol : String(5); //> for example, $, €, £, ₪, ...

    Entity sap.common.Languages

    The code list entity for countries is meant to be used with POSIX locales as defined in ISO/IEC 15897 as primary keys. For example, 'en_GB' for British English.

    entity sap.common.Languages : CodeList {
      key code : sap.common.Locale; //> for example, en_GB

    Learn more on normalized locales.

    SQL Persistence

    The following table definition represents the resulting SQL persistence of the countries code list:

    -- the basic code list table
    CREATE TABLE sap_common_Countries (
      name NVARCHAR(255),
      descr NVARCHAR(1000),
      code NVARCHAR(3),
      PRIMARY KEY(code)

    SQL Persistence and Localized Texts

    In addition, the generic localized data support triggered through the localized keyword adds these additional tables and views to efficiently deal with translations:

    -- _texts table for translations
    CREATE TABLE sap_common_Countries_texts (
      code NVARCHAR(3),
      locale NVARCHAR(14),
      name NVARCHAR(255),
      descr NVARCHAR(1000),
      PRIMARY KEY(locale, code)
    -- view to easily read localized texts with automatic fallback
    CREATE VIEW localized_sap_common_Countries AS SELECT
      COALESCE (, name) AS name,
      COALESCE (localized.descr, descr) AS descr
    FROM ( sap_common_Countries
      LEFT JOIN sap_common_Countries_texts AS localized
        ON localized.code= code
        AND localized.locale = SESSION_CONTEXT('locale')

    Learn more about localized data.

    Minimalistic Design by Intent

    The models for code lists are intentionally minimalistic to keep the entry barriers as low as possible, focusing on the bare minimum of what all applications generally need: a unique code and localizable fields for name and full name or descriptions.

    ISO alpha codes for languages, countries, and currencies were chosen because they:

    1. Are most common (most projects would choose that)
    2. Are most efficient (as these codes are also frequently displayed on UIs)
    3. Guarantee minimal entry barriers (bringing about 1 above)
    4. Guarantee best support (for example, by readable foreign keys)

    Assumption is that ~80% of all apps don’t need more than what is already covered in this minimalistic model. Yet, in case you need more, you can easily leverage CDS standard features to adapt and extend these base models to your needs as demonstrated in the section Adapting to your needs.

    Providing Initial Data

    You can provide initial data for the code lists by placing CSV files in a folder called csv next to your data models.

    The following is an example of a csv file to provide data for countries:


    AU;Australia;Commonwealth of Australia
    CN;China;People's Republic of China (PRC)
    FR;France;French Republic
    DE;Germany;Federal Republic of Germany
    IN;India;Republic of India
    IL;Israel;State of Israel
    MM;Myanmar;Republic of the Union of Myanmar
    GB;United Kingdom;United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    US;United States;United States of America (USA)
    EU;European Union;European Union

    Learn more about the database aspects of Providing Initial Data.

    Add Translated Texts

    In addition, you can provide translations for the sap.common.Countries_texts table as follows:


    AU;de;Australien;Commonwealth Australien
    CN;de;China;Volksrepublik China
    FR;de;Frankreich;Republik Frankreich
    DE;de;Deutschland;Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    IN;de;Indien;Republik Indien
    IL;de;Israel;Staat Israel
    MM;de;Myanmar;Republik der Union Myanmar
    GB;de;Vereinigtes Königreich;Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland
    US;de;Vereinigte Staaten;Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika
    EU;de;Europäische Union;Europäische Union

    Learn more about Localization/i18n.

    Using Tools like Excel

    You can use Excel or similar tools to maintain these files. For example, the following screenshot shows how we maintained the above two files in Numbers on a Mac:

    csv in numbers

    Using Prebuilt Content Package

    Package @sap/cds-common-content provides prebuilt data for the entities Countries, Currencies, and Languages.

    Add it your project:

    npm add @sap/cds-common-content --save

    Use it in your cds files:

    using from '@sap/cds-common-content';

    Learn more about integrating reuse packages

    Adapting to Your Needs

    As stated, the predefined definitions are minimalistic by intent. Yet, as @sap/cds/common is also just a CDS model, you can apply all the standard features provided by CDS, especially CDS’ Aspects to adapt, and extend these definitions to your needs.

    Let’s look at a few examples of what could be done. You can combine these extensions in an effective model.

    You can do such extensions in the models of your project. You can also collect your extensions into reuse packages and share them as common definitions with several consuming projects, similar to @sap/cds/common itself.

    Learn more about providing reuse packages.

    Adding Detailed Fields as of ISO 3166-1


    using { sap.common.Countries } from '@sap/cds/common';
    extend Countries {
      numcode : Integer; //> ISO 3166-1 three-digit numeric codes
      alpha3 : String(3); //> ISO 3166-1 three-letter alpha codes
      alpha4 : String(4); //> ISO 3166-3 four-letter alpha codes
      independent : Boolean;
      status : String(111);
      statusRemark : String(1111);
      remarkPart3 : String(1111);

    Value lists in SAP Fiori automatically search in the new text fields as well.

    Protecting Certain Entries

    Some application logic might have to be hard-coded against certain entries in code lists. Therefore, these entries have to be protected against changes and removal. For example, let’s assume a code list for payment methods defined as follows:

    entity PaymentMethods : sap.common.CodeList {
      code : String(11);

    Let’s further assume the entires with code Main and Travel are required by implementations and hence must not be changed or removed. Have a look at a couple of solutions.

    Programmatic Solution

    A fallback, and at the same time, the most open, and most flexible approach, is to use a custom handler to assert that. For example, in Node.js:

    srv.on ('DELETE', 'PaymentMethods', req=>{
      const entry = req.query.DELETE.where[2].val
      if (['Main','Travel'].includes(entry))
        return req.reject(403, 'these entries must not be deleted')

    Using Different Foreign Keys

    Let’s assume you prefer to have references to the latest code list entries without adjusting foreign keys. This can be achieved by adding and using numeric ISO codes for foreign keys instead of the alpha codes.


    namespace your.common;
    using { sap.common.Countries } from '@sap/cds/common';
    // Extend Countries code list with fields for numeric codes
    extend Countries {
      numcode : Integer; //> ISO 3166-1 three-digit numeric codes
    // Define an own Country type using numcodes for foreign keys
    type Country : Association to Countries { numcode };

    You can use your own definition of Country instead of the one from @sap/cds/common in your models as follows:


    using { your.common.Country } from './your-common.2';
    entity Addresses {
      country : Country;

    Mapping to SAP S/4HANA or ABAP Table Signatures


    using { sap.common.Countries } from '@sap/cds/common';
    entity Countries4GFN as projection on Countries {
      code as CountryCodeAlpha2,
      name as CountryShortName,
      // ...
    entity Countries4ABAP as projection on Countries {
      code as LAND,
      // ...

    These views are updatable on SAP HANA and many other databases. You can also use CDS to expose them through corresponding OData services in order to ease integration with SAP S/4HANA or older ABAP backends.

    Adding Own Code Lists

    As another example of adaptations, let’s add support for subdivisions, that means regions, as of ISO 3166-2 to countries.

    Defining a New Code List Entity


    using sap from '@sap/cds/common';
    // new code list for regions
    entity Regions : sap.common.CodeList {
      key code : String(5); // ISO 3166-2 alpha5 codes, e.g. DE-BW
      country  : Association to sap.common.Countries;
    // bi-directionally associate Regions with Countries
    extend sap.common.Countries {
      regions : Composition of many Regions on = $self;

    Regions is a new, custom-defined code list entity defined in the same way as the predefined ones in @sap/cds/common. In particular, it inherits all elements and annotations from the base definition sap.common.CodeList. For example, the @cds.autoexpose annotation, which provides that Regions is auto-exposed in any OData service that has exposed entities with associations to it. The localization of the predefined elements name and descr is also inherited.

    Learn in our sample how an own code list can be used to localize enum values.

    Defining a New Reuse Type

    Following the pattern for codes in @sap/cds/common a bit more, you can also define a reuse type for regions as a managed association:


    // Define an own reuse type referring to Regions
    type Region : Association to Regions;

    Using the New Reuse Type and Code List

    This finally allows you to add respective elements, the same way you do it with predefined reuse types. These elements receive the same support from built-in generic features. For example:


    using { Country, Region } from './your-common.4.2';
    entity Addresses {
      street  : String;
      town    : String;
      country : Country; //> pre-defined reuse type
      region  : Region; //> your custom reuse type

    Code Lists with Validity

    Even ISO codes may change over time and you may have to react to that in your applications. For example, when Burma was renamed to Myanmar in 1989. Let’s investigate strategies on how that can be updated in our code lists.

    Accommodating Changes

    The renaming from Burma to Myanmar in 1989, was reflected in ISO 3166 as follows (the alpha-4 codes as specified in ISO 3166-3 signify entries officially deleted from ISO 3166-1 code lists):

    Name Alpha-2 Alpha-3 Alpha-4 Numeric
    Burma BU BUR BUMM 104
    Myanmar MM MMR   104

    By default, and with the given default definitions in @sap/cds/common, this would have been reflected as a new entry for Myanmar and you’d have the following choices on what to do with the existing records in your data:

    • (a) Adjust foreign keys for records so that it always reflects the current state.
    • (b) Keep foreign keys as is for cases where the old records reflect the state effective at the time they were created or valid.

    Exclude Outdated Entries from Pick Lists (Optional)

    Although outdated entries like the one for Burma have to remain in the code lists as targets for references from historic records in other entities, you would certainly want to exclude it from all pick lists used in UIs when entering new data. This is how you could achieve that:

    1. Extend the Common Code List Entity

    using { sap.common.Countries } from '@sap/cds/common';
    extend Countries with { validTo: Date default '9999-12-31'; }

    2. Fill Validity Boundaries in Code Lists:

    code name validTo
    BU Burma 1989-06-18
    MM Myanmar 9999-12-31

    3. Model Pick List Entity

    Add the following line to your service definition:

    entity CountriesPickList as projection on sap.common.Countries where validTo >= $now;

    Basically, the entity Countries serves all standard requests, and the new entity CountriesPickList is built for the value help only. This entity is a projection that gives you only those records that are valid right now.

    4. Include Pick List with Validity on the UI

    This snippet equips UI fields for a countries association with a value help from the CountriesPickList entity.

    annotate YourService.EntityName with {
        countries @(
            Common: {
                Text: , // TextArrangement: #TextOnly,
                ValueList: {
                    Label: 'Country Value Help',
                    CollectionPath: 'CountriesPickList',
                    Parameters: [
                        { $Type: 'Common.ValueListParameterInOut',
                            LocalDataProperty: country_code,
                            ValueListProperty: 'code'
                        { $Type: 'Common.ValueListParameterDisplayOnly',
                            ValueListProperty: 'name'