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    January 2023

    Welcome to the notes for the January 2023 release for the CAP framework. Find the most noteworthy news and changes in the following sections.

    Find bugfixes and enhancements in the Changelog.

    CDS Language & Compiler

    Simplified Syntax for Binding Parameters

    Bound actions or function have a so-called binding parameter pointing to their bound entity — similar to this for Java or JavaScript methods — which usually is implicitly defined. For example, for the following bound action CalatogService.Products.addReview implicitly has a binding parameter in with type Products:

    service CatalogService {
      entity Products { ... }
        actions { // bound actions or functions
          action addReview (stars: Integer, comment: String);

    Sometimes however, you need to change the name of type of this parameter, for example, in order to bind the action or function to a collection of instances of the base entity rather than to a single instance. This is now possible by declaring the first parameter of a bound action or function with type $self as follows:

    service CatalogService {
      entity Products { ... }
        actions { // bound actions or functions
          action archiveOutOfStock (products: many $self, since: Date);
          action addReview (in: $self, stars: Integer, comment: String);

    The above action addReview shows the equivalent of the one in the first example above with implicit binding parameter.

    In the past you had to use annotations and @cds.odata.bindingparameter.collection to achieve the same, which are not required anymore, and deprecated from now on.

    Explicit binding parameters are ignored in OData V2.

    Learn more about Bound Actions and Functions.

    Extending the Generated .texts Entities

    If you have localized data, you can now collectively extend all generated .texts entities by extending the aspect sap.common.TextsAspect, which is defined in file common.cds.

    Use this to add an association targeting the Languages code list entity, or for adding flags that help you to control the translation process.


    extend sap.common.TextsAspect with {
      language : Association to sap.common.Languages on language.code = locale;

    In the bookshop sample, this would result in the following Books.texts entity:

    entity Books.texts {
      key locale: sap.common.Locale;
      language : Association to sap.common.Languages on language.code = locale;
      key ID : UUID;
      title : String;
      descr : String;

    Learn more about Extending generated .texts entities.


    Fixed Semantics of .where Function in Query API

    In previous versions of the query API, the where method didn’t consistently wrap the existing where clause in an xpr, resulting in situations where the provided expression wasn’t always correctly evaluated.


    const query = SELECT.from('Entity')
    query.SELECT.where = [{ ref: [ 'a' ] }, '=', { val: 1 }, 'or', { ref: [ 'b' ] }, '=', { val: 2 }]
    query.where({ c: 3 })

    The generated SQL where clause would be a = 1 or b = 2 and c = 3, where the second expression might not be evaluated. This is now corrected and the expressions are correctly grouped, in SQL terms (a = 1 or b = 2) and c = 3.

    Continued Improvement of cds.d.ts Typings

    Together with our community, we’ve done various improvements in our TypeScript typings:

    • Typings for cds.test to allow additional arguments
    • Typings for srv.send to support unbound actions
    • Typings for cds.ql to return the correct CQN

    If you observe gaps in any of the typings, we appreciate your help.

    Improved Implementation for search on SAP HANA

    When searching on localized properties, it’s now searched in the translation and the fallback for an entry matching the search term. Considering the bookshop sample and a German user using the search terms Wuthering or Sturmhöhe, both would return a match.


    Important Changes ❗️

    Removed Support for Associations Between Unrelated Draft Entities

    Associations from draft entities pointing outside the draft document no longer include entities in inactive state, that is, queries only return associated active data. In contrast, a corresponding composition from a draft entity always refers to an inactive entity as part of the hierarchical draft document.

    In the following example

    service Bookshop {
      entity Books {
        author: Association to Authors;
      entity Authors {

    the query GET /Bookshop/Book(ID=<id>,IsActiveEntity=false)/author returns an associated entity (type Authors) with IsActiveEntity=true (or null if not existing), even if there’s a draft version.

    To restore the previous behaviour, you can configure cds.drafts.associationsToInactiveEntities.enabled: true.

    This switch is deprecated and will be removed in future.

    Changed HTTP Error Code on Missing Authentication

    Unauthenticated requests are now rejected with HTTP error code 401 if they fail authorization (error code 403 previously). This can only happen in a misconfigured application where no authentication is active (e.g. no Spring security added) but still authorization is performed by generic CAP handler. Productive usage shouldn’t be affected but you might have to adjust test code.

    JDK 17 Support

    JDK 17 is now fully supported and also the recommended runtime JDK. Until now, only JDK 8 and JDK 11 were supported. Due to the Spring Boot support schedule, Spring Boot version 2.7 that is currently used will reach end of OSS support in November 23. The latest Spring Boot version 3 has minimum JDK version 17. Therefore, we recommend a migration to JDK 17 in the near future as preparation for the upcoming Spring Boot 3 migration.

    We also recommend configuring SapMachine 17 JDK (respective JRE) with the SAP Java buildpack as shown in the example (mta.yaml):

      - name: MyCAPJavaApp
        type: java
        path: srv
          disk-quota: 512M
          buildpack: sap_java_buildpack
          JBP_CONFIG_COMPONENTS: "jres: ['']"
          JBP_CONFIG_SAP_MACHINE_JRE: '{ use_offline_repository: false, version: 17.+ }'

    Current sap_java_buildpack has some limitations for JDK 17:

    • Public Internet access is required to download the JDK (no offline mode).
    • Only Java Main deliveries are supported (no restriction for Spring Boot apps).

    Reserved Database Keywords

    You can now use identifier names in your CDS Models, which are reserved words and keywords on the target database. The runtime now uses delimited identifiers in the database’s default case to avoid a clash with the keyword.

    Memory Consumption of CDS Models

    The CAP Java runtime serves business requests on basis of CDS models that are cached in-memory for fastest possible processing. Especially for multi-tenancy, when different tenant-specific models are required, the CDS model cache can consume a substantial amount of memory.

    CAP Java now stores CDS models in a more compact representation. Since 1.30, the model reader strips UI annotations from the in-memory representation.

    With the model of the Fiori Elements sample application, we observe the following improvements:

    CAP Java Version file size memory size reduction
    1.29 222 kB 1.30 MB  
    1.30 w/ UI annotations 222 kB 735 kB 43 %
    1.30 w/o UI annotations 222 kB 573 kB 56 %
    1.31 w/o UI annotations 222 kB 171 kB 87 %

    Moreover, some model artifacts, which are common to multiple tenants are now shared in memory. With three variants of the same Fiori Elements sample application model, which have only small differences, we observe:

    CAP Java Version file size memory size reduction
    1.29 667 kB 3.95 MB  
    1.30 w/ UI annotations 667 kB 2.09 MB 47 %
    1.30 w/o UI annotations 667 kB 1.69 MB 57 %
    1.31 w/o UI annotations 667 kB 505 kB 87 %


    • You can now limit the maximum number of requests that are accepted within a single OData $batch request. Settings cds.odataV4.batch.maxRequests resp. cds.odataV2.batch.maxRequests specify the corresponding limits. By default, no limit applies.

    • Added a generic UserInfoProvider that recognizes requests on behalf of the provider tenant and normalizes the request tenant to null(that is, UserInfo.getTenant() == null). This helps to distinguish provider requests from subscriber requests, for instance when fetching the tenant-specific CDS model or when dispatching to the corresponding PersistenceService. Set to true to activate the normalization.

    Modification of CQN Statements

    Use the new Modifier methods skip and top to modify the pagination settings of a CqnQuery.

    The subinterface CqnModifier, which does an expensive copy of values, is now deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

    For OData PATCH requests that update related entities (deep updates) and specify the related entities as a nested delta payload, the key values of entities to be removed can now be given as properties instead of @id control information. The “reason” property of @removed is optional now.

        "ID": "o101",
        "Items@delta": [
                "ID": "i01",
                "amount": 101
                "ID": "i02",
                "@removed": { }
                "@id": "OrderItems(i03)",
                "@removed": { "reason": "deleted" }

    The example update payload for Order(o101) contains a nested delta payload for the associated order items. Upon executing the PATCH request, order item i01 is upserted (inserted or updated as needed), and items i02 and i03 are deleted. All other items of Order(o101) remain untouched.


    Cloud Foundry User-Provided Services in Hybrid Testing

    User-provided services can now be used for hybrid testing. The handling is fully transparent to users, e.g cds bind --to my-user-provided-service is sufficient.

    cds watch --profile hybrid will automatically resolve bindings to user-provided service instances using the same technique as for any other managed services.


    Minimum Runtime Version Required

    @sap/cds-mtxs version >= 1.5.0 requires at least @sap/cds@6.5.0.

    Support of hdbmigrationtable in Extensible Projects

    SaaS applications using extensibility can now use @cds.persistence.journal for base model entities to get .hdbmigrationtable support. Important: Extending migration table artifacts isn’t supported.

    Cache Database Credentials from SAP Service Manager

    The credentials fetched from the service-manager are now cached. This reduces the number of requests to the service-manager, mitigating errors caused by rate-limiting. Disable caching by setting cds.requires.multitenancy.cacheBindings = false.

    Simpler Deployment Service Configuration

    You can now configure the deployment service in a simpler way:

    "hdi": {
      "create": {
        "database_id": "<ID>"
      "bind": {
        "key": "value"

    Instead of:

    "hdi": {
      "create": {
        "provisioning_parameters": {
          "database_id": "<ID>"
        "binding_parameters": {
          "key": "value"

    The old configuration is still supported, but you’re advised to migrate to the new configuration for improved readability.

    Improved Job Status Response

    /-/cds/jobs/pollJob now also returns a tenants field, so tenant-specific tasks don’t have to be polled individually. An example response format looks like this:

      "status": "FAILED",
      "op": "upgrade",
      "tenants": {
          "non-existing-tenant": {
             "status": "FAILED",
             "error": "Tenant 'non-existing-tenant' does not exist"
          "existing-tenant": {
             "status": "FINISHED"

    CAP on Kyma/K8s

    SAP HANA Cloud HDI Containers on Kyma Runtime

    With the December 2022 release of the SAP HANA Cloud tools, we can now create HANA HDI shared containers on the Kyma runtime. The CAP on Kyma tooling creates HANA HDI shared containers on the Kyma runtime itself.

    An architecture diagram showing the old and new ways to access SAP Hana from Kyma. It highlights that Cloud Foundry isn't required to access the containers anymore.

    Support for Multitenancy and Approuter

    Command 'cds add hana,xsuaa,approuter,multitenancy --for production' and output to show the new way to  add multitenancy to your Kyma apps.

    CAP on Kyma tooling now supports the deployment of Multitenant SaaS applications on Kyma along with Approuter. The Deploy as Multitenant SaaS application guide is updated with the Kyma deployment instructions.

    A part of a sample helm chart with configuration for Service Manager and SaaS Registry.

    Changes in the Helm Chart

    With this release, the Helm charts (cds add helm), the following keys have been renamed/moved:

    Old New
    hana_deployer hana-deployer
    html5_apps_deployer html5-apps-deployer
    bindingshtml5_apps_repo bindingshtml5-apps-repo
    cloudService envSAP_CLOUD_SERVICE

    In addition to these properties, backendDestinations is now moved from html5_apps_deployer.backendDestinations to root of values.yaml.

    Earlier the values.yaml content for HTML5 Apps Deployer was:

      cloudService: null
      backendDestinations: {}

    Now, it’s changed to:

    backendDestinations: {}
        SAP_CLOUD_SERVICE: null